Wednesday, April 29, 2009

Career Option : Environmental Engineering

Career Option : Environmental Engineering


Environmental Engineering is an emerging branch of study in engineering that applies the knowledge of science and engineering principles to improve the environment (air, water, and/or land resources) from pollution and to provide healthy water, air and land for human habitation and for other organisms.

Environmental engineers work in many aspects of environmental protection. The major areas include air pollution control, industrial hygiene, radiation protection, hazardous waste management, toxic materials control, water supply, waste water management, storm water management, solid waste disposal, public health, and land management. And, within each of these major categories are many sub-specialties.

Courses & Eligibility

An individual aspiring for a career in environmental engineering can join BE/B.Tech program after his/her Plus Two Science with Physics, Chemistry, Maths. The BE/BTech program is of four years duration. Admission to B.Tech program is made generally through entrance tests.

There are many engineering colleges/universiti es in India including the IITs offering BE/B.Tech/ME/ M.Tech courses in environmental engineering.

Career Prospects

Graduates of Environmental Engineering program can find jobs in many fields. One can be a researcher, a designer, a planner, an operator of pollution control facilities, a professor, a government regulatory agency official, a manager of programs, or be involved in professional society work.

The employer can be private consulting engineering firms, universities, private research firms, testing laboratories, government agencies of all types (central, state and local), or all types of major corporations and private businesses.

However, the possibility of finding jobs is more in chemical manufacturing units, mines etc.

Apart from jobs in government agencies like the Central Pollution Control Board, openings in the private sector would essentially lie with companies engaged in infrastructure projects with environmental consulting firms.

Environment engineers also have prospects in business industry as the government has notified that any industry that employs over 500 people must have a health and safety officer. An environmental engineer is ideally suited for this task.


There are many engineering colleges in the country offering BE/BTech in environmental engineering. The pioneer institutes are the Indian Institutes of Technology, Birla institute of Technology, National Institutes of Technology, Institute of Technology (Banaras Hindu University), College of Engineering and Technology (Anna University).

You can also check engineering colleges located in various states and major cities of the country that might be offering course in environmental engineering.

Contributed by Mr. Girish Kumar

Sunday, April 26, 2009

Career Options - Chemical Engineering

Career Options - Chemical Engineering


Chemical Engineering involves the application of physical science (e.g. chemistry and physics), with mathematics, to the process of converting raw materials or chemicals into more useful or valuable forms.

A person employed in this field is called a chemical engineer. Chemical engineers find the best possible way to manufacture products. A chemical engineer translates processes developed in the lab into practical applications for the production of products such as plastics, medicines, detergents, and fuels; design plants to maximize productivity and minimize costs.

Chemical engineers find employment opportunities in almost all companies dealing with manufacture of chemicals. Their work also extends to processes in nuclear energy, materials science, food production, the development of new sources of energy, and even medicine. Apart from process and product development and design, chemical engineers also work in areas such as research, environmental studies, market analysis, data processing, sales, and management etc.

Courses & Eligibility

An individual aspiring for a career in chemical engineering can join BE/B.Tech program after his/her Plus Two Science with Physics, Chemistry, Maths. The BE/BTech program is of four years duration. Admission to B.Tech program is made generally through entrance tests.

One can also do Diploma in Chemical engineering which is of three years duration and it gives the status of a junior engineer. The candidate can join this course after completing class X.

There are many engineering schools/ colleges/universities in India including the IITs offering Diploma/ B.Tech/ME/M. Tech courses in Chemical engineering.

The focus of the BE/B.Tech programmes in Chemical Engineering is on Industrial Chemistry, Polymer Technology, Polymer Processing, Polymer Testing, Polymer Synthesis etc.

Career Prospects

Chemical engineering provides tremendous job and career opportunities to the young masses. The possibility of a chemical engineer to find job in industries include food, materials, specialty chemicals, plastics, power production, environmental control, waste management and biotechnology etc.

In India there are wide employment opportunities available for chemical engineers both in the public sector as well as the private sector. They can seek jobs in areas such as processing, operations or manufacturing, research and development, design and construction, finance and also in teaching.


Chemical engineers are of great demand in today’s rapidly growing chemical industries throughout the globe. The average salary of a fresh chemical engineering graduate depends on the type of employer – government or private. The starting salary of a B.Tech holder varies somewhere between Rs. 10,000 and Rs. 15,000 per month excluding other perks and allowances. The Diploma holders get stating salary in the range between Rs. 5,000 to Rs. 9,000 per month.

Working experience, qualifications, ability are important factors in determining the pay level. Those who are working in the private sector are paid more than the public sector. Senior engineers with more than five years of working experience can earn anywhere between Rs 30,000 and Rs 50,000 a month.


These are the names of few elite institutions in India offering courses in Chemical Engineering. You can also check state-wise list of engineering colleges that may be offering courses in Chemical engineering.

* IITs
* NITs
* Birla Institute of Technology & Science, Pilani
* College of Engineering, Andhra University, Visakapatnam
* Nirma Institute of Technology (Gujarat University)
* Vellore Engineering College, Vellore
* Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Annamalai University
* University College of Technology, Osmania University
* M.S. Ramaiah Institute of Technology, Bangalore
* University Department of Chemical Technology
* University College of Science & Technology, Calcutta University
* Faculty of Engineering & Technology, Jadavpur University
* Institute of Technology, Banaras Hindu University
* Assam Engineering College, Guwahati University

contributed by Mr. Girish Kumar

Saturday, April 25, 2009

Career Awareness, Career Coaching and Selection of Higher Education Opportunities

Career Awareness, Career Coaching and Selection of Higher Education Opportunities

During this time of the year, parents and students often begin to discuss and or finalize the selection of higher education programs to prepare their children for eventual career paths.

My experience over that last five years is that often these decisions are made on the basis of status, family history (someone in the family is in the profession) or on a perception of constitutes a “hot” or trendy career field.

While making selections for professional endeavors and the educational programs that are pre-requisite in this manner is one way to plan for the future, it unfortunately overlooks two important variables. Does the individual have the traits and preferences that fit well with that profession and perhaps, more important in the long run, will they truly embrace that profession with not only their mind but their heart?

Global research and the experience of professional career coaches suggest an intense desire for a career makes all the difference.

I often ask both youth and older career changers the following question: What can you imagine yourself doing for work that would make you jump out of bed every morning with anticipation and joy? What do you enjoy so much that you would do it even if you were not paid for it?

While some think these questions are silly or idealistic, the truth is we do our best work when we can add passion and enthusiasm.

As a trained counsellor, career management consultant and certified level A and B workplace assessor, I can assist in a variety of ways. I use a combination of discussion, imagery and psychometric testing to help people make educational and career choices that are based on their personality preferences, their goals and their self - identity.

I firmly believe, as my graduate school mentor once said: After considering, content, location, work functions, educational requirements, work environments and the current labor market conditions, ask yourself one more question….where is the “magic”? Does this choice have even “magic for the soul and heart that it will propel me through my life?

It’s a question worth asking, and my services can help.

For more information on my background please see my Linkedin profile:


Bruncha M Milaszewski, MA

General Manager,Consulting and Training

Capita-Global FZE

PO Box 43755 +971 2 414 6778

Abu Dhabi UAE +971 2699 4848 (fax)

+971 50 561 5497(mobile)


Wednesday, April 22, 2009



CBSE questions and answers, chapter wise notes, sample papers, MCQs, exam tips and less frustration. All the materials have been written by KV teachers.

Excellent link:

Sunday, April 19, 2009

How To Prepare Effectively For Examinations Part 2

How To Prepare Effectively For Examinations Part 2

Examinations are a part of our education system. No matter how much we know, we will be judged by what we have written in examinations. That’s why it is necessary to understand the writing style and pattern for getting good marks. All the hard workers may not get fruitful results. We need to plan our study and analyse the examination pattern, marking scheme and the subject content. Here are some tips that will help the students to prepare well for examinations.


1. Count the number of subjects you have and the number of days left for the exams to start.
2. Give a certain amount of time for each subject, giving more time to your weaker subjects.
3. Set aside some time for mathematics everyday. Solve similar type of problems over and over again.
4. Study two-three subjects everyday to avoid monotony and boredom. However, if you prefer finishing your revision subject wise, that is entirely up to you.
5. Make a timetable and try to stick to it. The timetable must be practical and adjustable.
6. Give yourself a break every hour so. Walk about a bit, stretch, Do a light exercise. Get back to your table. You can take a little amount of normal water in between. This will keep you fresh and he will be able to sit for longer time.
7. Don’t slouch. A bad posture can be very tiring as it puts undue strain on your muscles.
8. Have a proper study table if you can. Your chair should be placed properly. The height of chair and study table should be in proper ratio.
9. Eat your meals at regular times. Take more salads and fresh leafy vegetables.
10. Get enough sleep. Your body is young and growing. Give it enough rest for at least seven hours.
11. Get up early. Your mind will be fresh and absorb information and it is really the best time to study.
12. Keep the radio and TV set aside from your life till examinations are over. There is time enough after the exams to watch your favourite programmes.
13. We disciplined and strict with yourself.


1. Don’t study your favourite subjects at the cost of others.
2. Don’t jump from tropic to topic. Cover each topic thoroughly before you go onto the next one.
3. Don’t d have endless cup of coffee. They don’t do you any good at all.

In the examination hall-here are some tips:

1. Read the paper thoroughly before you start to answer.
2. Be sure you understand the question properly.
3. Keep 10 minutes for revising your answer sheet. Divide the rest of the time between the questions to be answered.
4. If you are not able to complete your answers within that time, leave it for the time being and go onto the next question. Come back to that later if you have few minutes spared.
5. Answer first the questions that are easy for you and go back to the hard ones later.
Answer all the questions required to be answered by you, even if answer some of them only partially.
6. Do not leave out any question, particularly if it is a compulsory question. You will be denying yourself that set of marks straightway. A partial attempt will at least in was you partial marks.


How To Prepare Effectively For Examinations Part 1

How To Prepare Effectively For Examinations Part 1

Examinations serve several purposes, the foremost of which is to inform the examiner regarding the amount of knowledge possessed by the student. In discovering this, two methods may be employed; first, to test whether or not the student knows certain things, plainly a reproductive exercise; second, to see how well the student can apply his knowledge. But this is not the only function of an examination. It also shows the student how much he knows or does not know. Again the examination often serves as an incentive to harder work on the part of the student, for if one knows there will be an examination in a subject, one usually studies with greater zeal than when an examination is not expected. Lastly, an examination may help the student to link up facts in new ways, and to see them in new relationships. In this aspect, you readily see that examinations constitute a valuable device in learning.

But students are not very patient in philosophizing about the purpose of examinations, declaring that if examinations are a necessary part of the educational process, they wish some advice that will enable them to pass examinations easily and with credit to themselves. So we shall turn our attention to the practical problems of passing examinations.

Here are some tips on how to study for examinations:

1. Some students seem to think that they can slight their work throughout a course, and by vigorous cramming at the end make up for slighted work and pass the examination. This is an extremely dangerous attitude to take.

2. An advantage of cramming is that at such a time, one usually works at a high plane of efficiency; the task of reviewing in a few hours the work of an entire course is so huge that the attention is closely concentrated, impressions are made vividly, and the entire mentality is tuned up so that facts are well impressed, coordinated and retained. These advantages are not all present in the more leisurely learning of a course, so we see that cramming may be regarded as a useful device in learning.

3. The facts should not be seized upon singly but should be regarded in the light of their different relations with each other. Suppose, for example, you are reviewing for an examination in mediaeval history. The important events may be studied according to countries, studying one country at a time, but that is not sufficient; the events occurring during one period in one country should be correlated with those occurring in another country at the same time. Likewise the movements in the field of science and discovery should be correlated with movements in the fields of literature, religion and political control. Tabulate the events in chronological order and compare the different series of events with each other. In this way the facts will be seen in new relations and will be more firmly impressed so that you can use them in answering a great variety of questions.

Now some tips for students in examination hall:

1. Having made preparation of the subject-matter of the examination, the next step is to prepare yourself physically for the trying ordeal, for it is well known that the mind acts more ably under physically healthful conditions. Go to the examination-room with your body rested after a good night’s sleep. Eat sparingly before the examination, for mental processes are likely to be clogged if too heavy food is taken.

2. Having reached the examination-room, there are a number of considerations that are requisite for success. Some of the advice here given may seem to be superfluous but if you had ever corrected examination papers you would see the need of it all. Let your first step consist of a preliminary survey of the examination questions; read them all over slowly and thoughtfully in order to discover the extent of the task set before you. A striking thing is accomplished by this preliminary reading of the questions. It seems as though during the examination period the knowledge relating to the different questions assembles itself, and while you are focusing your attention upon the answer to one question, the answers to the other questions are formulating themselves in your mind. It is a semi-conscious operation, akin to the “unconscious learning” discussed in the chapter on memory. In order to take advantage of it, it is necessary to have the questions associations will form and will come to the surface when you reach the particular questions.

3. During the examination when some of these associations come into consciousness ahead of time, it is often wise to digress from the question in hand long enough to jot them down. By all means preserve them, for if you do not write them down they may leave you and be lost. Sometimes very brilliant ideas come in flashes, and inasmuch as they are so fleeting, it is wise to grasp them and fix them while they are fresh.

4. In writing the examination, be sure you read every question carefully. Each question has a definite point; look for it, and do not start answering until you are sure you have found it. Discover the implications of each question; canvass its possible interpretations, and if it is at all ambiguous seek light from the instructor if he is willing to make any further comment.

5. It is well to have scratch paper handy and make outlines for your answers to long questions. It is a good plan, also, when dealing with long questions, to watch the time carefully, for there is danger that you will spend too much time upon some question to the detriment of others equally important, though shorter.

6. One error which students often commit in taking examinations is to waste time in dreaming. As they come upon a difficult question they sit back and wait for the answer to come to them. This is the wrong plan. The secret of freedom of ideas lies in activity. Therefore, at such times, keep active, so that the associative processes will operate freely. Instead of idly waiting for flashes of inspiration, begin to write. You may not be able to write directly upon the point at issue, but you can write something about it, and as you begin to explore and to express your meager fund of knowledge, one idea will call up another and soon the correct answer will appear.

7. After you have prepared yourself to the extent of your ability, you should maintain toward the examination an attitude of confidence. Believe firmly that you will pass the examination. Make strong suggestions to yourself, affirming positively that you have the requisite amount of information and the ability to express it coherently and forcefully. Fortified by the consciousness of faithful application throughout the work of a course, reinforced by a thorough, well-planned review, and with a firm conviction in the strength of your own powers, you may approach your examinations with comparative ease and with good chances of passing them creditably.

Study Planner for CBSE Boarders

This is for all those students who are preparing for their exams and working hard to touch the sky. Dear students! Only hard work is not enough, the more important thing is to plan it in a systematic way. Here is a solution for all your anxieties.

This is a planner which you could modify as per your own individual schedule.

CBSE Test Papers for Class XI Maths

Please visit the following site and download the papers (in pdf format):

Friday, April 17, 2009

Please join cbse google group

Dear Students, teachers, parents,

cbse google group has been created with a view to share notes, question banks and other useful informations in pdf format for the benefit of students.

Kindly join the cbse google group by submitting your email at the link provided on the left side of this site.

Thanks and regards,

Ramesh Menon

Saturday, April 11, 2009

Admissions at BITS Dubai

Admissions at BITS Dubai

March 29 : BITS, Pilani, Dubai (BPD), a branch campus of BITS Pilani, Rajasthan, has invited applications for admission to the Undergraduate BE (Honours) Engineering Programmes in Computer Science, Electrical & Electronics, Electronics & Communication, Electronics & Instrumentation, Mechanical, Chemical and Biotechnology for the Academic Session 2009-10, commencing on 30th August 2009.

Admission is based on candidate’s merit, his/her preferences, facilities available and availability of seats in the discipline preferred. The merit position of the candidate will be based only on the overall aggregate secured by the candidate in the Qualifying Examination. Admissions are open to all nationalities.

Applicant must have passed the Qualifying Examination, which is the General Secondary Education Certificate Examination of Ministry of Education, UAE or Senior School Certificate Examination of the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), New Delhi, India or its equivalent from any recognized State, National or International Board, with a minimum 60% aggregate of marks.

For all programmes, applicants must have studied and passed Physics, Chemistry and Mathematics in the Qualifying Examination and must have a minimum aggregate of 60% in Physics, Chemistry & Mathematics. If letter grades or GPA are awarded or the results are given based on any other form of evaluation, their equivalences in marks will be decided by BITS, Pilani- Dubai. Good proficiency in English is essential for admission. Those applicants who have completed their qualifying examination from Non-English Medium Schools must have secured a TOEFL Score of 500 in paper based test or 61 in Internet based test or should have an IELTS Score of 5. If necessary, they will also be assessed by an institute-committee for English Comprehension.

Application can be collected in person from the Admissions Office, BITS, Pilani - Dubai, Dubai International Academic City, P.O Box 500022, Dubai or can be obtained by sending a request on e-mail to or may be downloaded from

The filled application form must be accompanied by Copy of mark sheet of the Qualifying Examination, such as General Secondary Education Certificate of Ministry of Education, UAE or Senior School Certificate of CBSE, New Delhi, India or its equivalent, Copy of 10th grade certificate, Copy of the Birth Certificate or any other document for proof of date of birth, Passport copy (first 3 pages and last 2 pages), the copy of Passport of parent residing in the GCC country with valid Residence Visa stamp in case of those applying under the GCC (Gulf Cooperation Council) category, TOEFL Score Report (for candidates from Non-English medium schools only), Application Fee of Arab Emirates Dirhams (AED) 150.00 only by Cash / Cheque / Crossed Demand Draft, drawn in favour of ETA-Network of Education and Training, payable at Dubai.

Applicants, who do not possess a valid Passport at the time of sending the Application, must enclose a declaration along with the Application, that they will fax the required Passport pages on or before August 10, 2009.

Completed Application Form along with necessary enclosures must be submitted in person or sent by courier to ‘The Admissions Office, BITS, Pilani - Dubai, P.O. Box 500022, Dubai International Academic City, Dubai, United Arab Emirates’ to reach there latest by 5 pm on 16th June 2009 in case of GCC Candidates and latest by 5 pm on 4th July, 2009 for Non-GCC Candidates.

On receipt of the Application, a unique Application Number will be allotted and informed to the candidate, which must be quoted by the applicant in all subsequent correspondence with the Institute. Details of Fee Structure, Scholarships available, Admission Bulletin etc, are available at

NRI Admissions for B.Tech/B.Arch at NIT- C

NRI Admissions for B.Tech/B.Arch at NIT- C

April 10 : National Institute of Technology Calicut, NIT Campus PO, Kozhikode, Kerala- 673 601, has invited applications from Dependants of NRIs for admissions to B.Tech/B.Arch Programmes for the session 2009-10.

Admission is offered only to sons/daughters of NRIs. Applicant in this category should have passed the final examination of 10+2 (Class XII) or its equivalent qualifying examination, given in Annexure I of the Prospectus available at and should be eligible for Central Counselling of the Central Counselling Board as per the results of the All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE--2009).

For admission to B.Tech, applicant should have studied Physics & Mathematics (compulsory) with one among Chemistry / Biotechnology / Computer Science / Biology at the qualifying examination. For admission to B.Arch, applicant should have studied Mathematics as a subject at Plus Two and should have passed 10+2 level examination with 50% marks in aggregate.

Maximum age for admission is 25 years as on October 1, 2009. For applicants of SC/ST/PH categories, upper age limit is relaxable by 5 years. Maximum age for them will be 30 years as on October 1, 2009. There are 5 seats each in Civil Engineering, Computer Science & Engineering, Electrical & Electronics Engineering, Electronics & Communication Engineering and Mechanical Engineering, 2 in Chemical Engineering, 1 each in Production Engineering, Biotechnology and B.Arch, under NRI category.

Application has to be submitted online by clicking here . After submission of the details, a print out of the online application has to be taken. A passport size photograph taken not earlier than 3 months from the date of notification is to be affixed on the Application Form. The photo in the application should be self attested. (Eight more copies of the same photograph and one stamp size photograph should be produced at the time of Counselling/Admission).

The following documents should be enclosed with the print out of the online application form:

(i) Attested copy of proof of date of birth
(ii) Attested copy of the mark lists and pass certificate of the qualifying examination, if available
(iii) Course and Conduct certificate from the Head of the institution last attended
(iv) Attested copy of AIEEE-2009 Admit Card.
(v) Attested copy of NRI certificate, format of which is available in Appendix III of the Prospectus
(vi) Demand Draft for Rs.2000/- drawn in favour of ‘Director, NIT Calicut’, payable at State Bank of India, NIT Calicut Branch (Code No: 2207) towards Registration fee.

The attestation on the documents is to be done by a Govt. Gazetted Officer or Head of the Institution where the candidate has studied for the qualifying examination.

The print out of the online application form with the enclosures specified should reach ‘Chairperson-UG Admissions, National Institute of Technology Calicut, N.I.T.Campus P.O., Kozhikode, Kerala-673 601’, by Registered Post/Speed Post latest by 29.05.2009.

Admission will be based on the Rank obtained in the All India Engineering Entrance Examination (AIEEE-2009), conducted by the Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE), New Delhi.

The counselling/admission will be tentatively in July 2009. The date of counselling/admission will be notified at The eligibility for counselling/admission and call letter for counselling should be downloaded from the website after login, using Application number and date of birth. No separate call letter will be despatched to applicants in this regard. Applicant will have to produce the original certificates and other documents at the time of counselling.

Those offered admission will have to remit the fees on the day of counselling failing which the offer shall be withdrawn forthwith. Tuition Fee (for 2 Semesters) is US$ 4000 (US $2000 for SAARC). Details of fee payable are given in the Prospectus.

Visit for more details.

Objectives of learning ENGLISH (Core) under CBSE Curriculum

Objectives of learning ENGLISH (Core) under CBSE Curriculum


Students are expected to have acquired a reasonable degree of language proficiency in English by the time they come to class XI, and the course will aim, essentially, at promoting the higher-order language skills.

For a large number of students, the higher secondary stage will be a preparation for the university, where a fairly high degree of proficiency in English may be required. But for another large group, the higher secondary stage may be a preparation for entry into the world of work. The Core Course should cater to both groups by promoting the language skills required for academic study as well as the language skills required for the workplace.


The general objectives at this stage are:

· to listen to and comprehend live as well as recorded oral presentations on a variety of topics,
· to develop greater confidence and proficiency in the use of language skills necessary for social and academic purposes.
· to participate in group discussions/interviews, making short oral presentations on given topics.
· to perceive the overall meaning and organisation of the text (i.e., the relationships of the different “chunks” in the text to each other).
· to identify the central/main point and supporting details, etc.
· to build communicative competence in various registers of English.
· to promote advanced language skills with an aim to develop the skills of reasoning, drawing inferences, etc. through meaningful activities.
· to translate texts from mother tongue (s) into english and vice versa.
· to develop ability and knowledge required in order to engage in independent reflection and enquiry.
· to develop the capacity to appreciate literary use of English and also use English creatively and imaginatively.

At the end of this stage learners will be able to do the following:

· read and comprehend extended texts ( prescribed and non-prescribed) in the following
· genres: fiction, science fiction, drama, poetry, biography, autobiography, travel and sports literature, etc.
· text-based writing (i.e., writing in response to questions or tasks based on prescribed or unseen texts)
· understand and respond to lectures, speeches, etc.
· write expository/argumentative essays of 250-500 words, explaining or developing a topic, arguing a case, etc.
· write formal/informal letters and applications for different purposes.
· write items related to the workplace (minutes, memoranda, notices, summaries reports;
· filling up of forms, preparing CVs, e-mail messages, etc.).
· taking/making notes from reference materials, recorded talks etc.

Language Items

The Core Course should draw upon the language items suggested for classes IX-X and delve deeper into their usage and functions. Particular attention may, however, given to the following areas of grammar:

· the uses of different tense forms for different kinds of narration (e.g. media commentaries, reports, programmes, etc.
· the use of passive forms in scientific and innovative writings
· converting one kind of sentence/clause into a different kind of structure as well as other items to exemplify stylistic variations in different discourses
· modal auxiliaries - uses based on semantic considerations.

Methods and Techniques

The techniques used for teaching should promote habits of self-learning and reduce dependence on the teacher. In general, we recommend a multi-skill, learner-centred, activity based approach, of which there can be many variations. The core classroom activity is likely to be that of silent reading of prescribed/selected texts for comprehension, which can lead to other forms of language learning activities such as role play, dramatization, group discussion, writing, etc. although many such activities could be carried out without the preliminary use of textual material. It is important that students be trained to read independently and intelligently, interacting actively with texts, with the use of reference materials (dictionaries, thesauruses, etc.) where necessary. Some pre-reading activity will generally be required, and the course
books should suggest suitable activities, leaving teachers free to devise other activities when desired. So also, the reading of texts should be followed by post reading activities. It is important to remember that every text can generate different readings. Students should be encouraged to interpret texts in different ways.

Group and pair activities can be resorted to when desired, but many useful language activities can be carried out individually.

In general, teachers should encourage students to interact actively with texts and with each other. Oral activity (group discussion, etc.) should be encouraged.

Objectives of learning BIOLOGY under CBSE Curriculum

Objectives of learning BIOLOGY under CBSE Curriculum

The present syllabus reinforces the ideas introduced in the lower classes while the students learn
new concepts besides getting an exposure to contemporary areas of the subject. The syllabus also aims at emphasizing the underlying principles that are common to both animals and plants as well as highlighting the relationships of biology with other areas of knowledge. The format of the syllabus allows a simple, clear, consequential flow of concepts without any jarring jumps. The syllabus also stresses the connection of the study of Biology to real life problems, use of biological discoveries/innovations in everyday life - in environment, nature, medicine, health and agriculture. The updated syllabus also focuses on reducing the curriculum load while ensuring that ample opportunities and scope for learning and appreciating basic concepts of the subject continues to be available within its framework.

The prescribed syllabus is expected to:

· promote understanding of basic principles of biology
· learning of emerging knowledge and its relevance to individual and society
· encourage rational/specific attitude to issues related to population, environment and development
· enhance awareness about environmental issues and problems and the appropriate solutions
· create awareness amongst the learners about variations amongst the living and developing respect for the diversities and to appreciate that the most complex biological phenomenon are also built on essentially simple processes.

It is expected that the students would get an exposure to various branches of Biology in the syllabus in a more contextual and friendly manner as they study its various units.

Objectives of learning CHEMISTRY under CBSE Curriculum

Objectives of learning CHEMISTRY under CBSE Curriculum


Higher Secondary is the most crucial stage of school education because at this juncture specialized discipline based, content-oriented courses are introduced. Students reach this stage after 10 years of general education and opt for Chemistry with a purpose of pursuing their career in basic sciences or professional courses like medicine, engineering, technology and study courses in applied areas of science and technology at tertiary level. Therefore, there is a need to provide learners with sufficient conceptual background of Chemistry, which will make them competent to meet the challenges of academic and professional courses after the higher secondary stage.

The new and updated curriculum is based on disciplinary approach with rigour and depth taking care that the syllabus is not heavy and at the same time it is comparable to the international level. The knowledge related to the subject of Chemistry has undergone tremendous changes during the past one decade. Many new areas like synthetic materials, bio-molecules, natural resources, industrial chemistry are coming in a big way and deserve to be an integral part of chemistry syllabus at senior secondary stage At international level, new formulations and nomenclature of elements and compounds, symbols and units of physical quantities floated by scientific bodies like IUPAC and CGPM are of immense importance and need to be incorporated in the updated syllabus. The revised syllabus takes care of all these aspects. Greater emphasis has been laid on use of new nomenclature, symbols and formulations, teaching of fundamental concepts, applications of concepts in chemistry to industry/ technology, logical sequencing of units, removal of obsolete content and repetition etc.


The broad objectives of teaching Chemistry at Senior Secondary Stage are to help the learners:

· to promote understanding of basic facts and concepts in chemistry while retaining the excitement of chemistry.
· to make students capable of studying chemistry in academic and professional courses (such as medicine, engineering, technology) at tertiary level.
· to expose the students to various emerging new areas of chemistry and apprise
· them with their relevance in their future studies and their application in various spheres of chemical sciences and technology.
· to equip students to face various changes related to health, nutrition, environment, population, weather, industries and agriculture.
· to develop problem solving skills in students.
· to expose the students to different processes used in industries and their technological applications.
· to apprise students with interface of chemistry with other disciplines of science such as physics, biology, geology, engineering etc.
· to acquaint students with different aspects of chemistry used in daily life.
· to develop an interest in students to study chemistry as a discipline.

Objectives of learning MATHEMATICS under CBSE Curriculum

Objectives of learning MATHEMATICS under CBSE Curriculum

The Syllabus in the subject of Mathematics has undergone changes from time to time in accordance with growth of the subject and emerging needs of the society. Senior Secondary stage is a launching stage from where the students go either for higher academic education in Mathematics or for professional courses like engineering, physical and Bioscience, commerce or computer applications. The present revised syllabus has been designed in accordance with National Curriculum Frame work 2005 and as per guidelines given in Focus Group on Teaching of Mathematics 2005 which is to meet the emerging needs of all categories of students.

Motivating the topics from real life situations and other subject areas, greater emphasis has been laid on application of various concepts.


The broad objectives of teaching Mathematics at senior school stage intend to help the pupil:

· to acquire knowledge and critical understanding, particularly by way of motivation and visualization, of basic concepts, terms, principles, symbols and mastery of underlying processes and skills.
· to feel the flow of reasons while proving a result or solving a problem.
· to apply the knowledge and skills acquired to solve problems and wherever possible, by more than one method.
· to develop positive attitude to think, analyze and articulate logically.
· to develop interest in the subject by participating in related competitions.
· to acquaint students with different aspects of mathematics used in daily life.
· to develop an interest in students to study mathematics as a discipline.
· to develop awareness of the need for national integration, protection of environment, observance of small family norms, removal of social barriers, elimination of sex biases.
· to develop reverence and respect towards great Mathematicians for their contributions
to the field of Mathematics.

Objectives of learning PHYSICS under the CBSE Curriculum

Objectives of learning PHYSICS under the CBSE Curriculum

Senior Secondary stage of school education is a stage of transition from general
education to discipline-based focus on curriculum. The present updated syllabus keeps in view the rigour and depth of disciplinary approach as well as the comprehension level of learners. Due care has also been taken that the syllabus is not heavy and is at the same time, comparable to the international standards.

Salient features of the syllabus include:

· Emphasis on basic conceptual understanding of the content.
· Emphasis on use of SI units, symbols, nomenclature of physical quantities and formulations as per international standards.
· Providing logical sequencing of units of the subject matter and proper placement of concepts with their linkage for better learning.
· Reducing the curriculum load by eliminating overlapping of concepts/ content within the discipline and other disciplines.
· Promotion of process-skills, problem-solving abilities and applications of Physics concepts.

Besides, the syllabus also attempts to:

· Strengthen the concepts developed at the secondary stage to provide firm foundation for further learning in the subject.
· expose the learners to different processes used in Physics-related industrial and technological applications.
· develop process-skills and experimental, observational, manipulative, decision making and investigatory skills in the learners.
· promote problem solving abilities and creative thinking in learners.
· develop conceptual competence in the learners and make them realize and appreciate the interface of Physics with other disciplines.

Thursday, April 9, 2009

Management and Motivational Quotes - Sarah Belhasa, entrepreneur, Dubai

Management and Motivational Quotes - Sarah Belhasa, entrepreneur, Dubai

I’m passionate about what I do. My mantra is ‘be positive’. You don’t need to see the entire staircase to know where it goes. Just take the first step. It will lead somewhere.
In her interview for the Wknd magazine, 3 April 2009

Wednesday, April 8, 2009

Management and Motivational Quotes - Mahendra Singh Dhoni after the Indian Cricket Team's historic test series win against New Zeland - 07 April 2009

Management Tips - Mahendra Singh Dhoni after the Indian Cricket Team's historic test series win against New Zeland - 07 April 2009

Historic win for Indian Cricket team and Dhoni's comment:

"We have set the benchmark," Dhoni said. "Next time when we come to New Zealand, people expect you to win. You have achieved something that's big, but the tough part is to maintain it, to sustain it. It never gets easy for a cricketer. If you have not achieved something, there's pressure on you to achieve it. Once you have achieved it, there is pressure to sustain it. Nothing comes easy, it will be tougher for the guys who come on the next tour."

"We didn't rely on one specific individual, everybody contributed. Each and every batsman scored at some point in the series and the same applies to the bowlers also. At times, there was one end, which was not favouring the seamers, maybe because of the wind or not much help from the wicket. Still, bowling your heart out from that end, you really need quite a determined body and mind to do that. Quite happy with the performance overall."

Each team member had worked hard over the last 50 days to achieve the historic win

Tuesday, April 7, 2009

Gulf Sahodaya Question Papers

Gulf Sahodaya Question Papers

Please visit the web site of International IndianSchool Dammam and Select the Question Papers button from the left panel.


Please visit the web site of International Indian School Al-Jubail KSA and Select the Question Papers button from the left panel

How to Study Mathematics?

How to Study Mathematics?

Why aren't you getting better grades in mathematics? Do you feel that you have put in all the time on it that can be expected of you and that you are still not getting results? Or are you just lazy? If you are lazy, this material is not intended for you. But if you have been trying and your grades still don't show your ability, or if you have been getting good grades but still feel that the mathematics does not mean very much to you, it is very likely that you do not know how to study effectively. This material aims to help you to study mathematics effectively.

How to study Maths?

How is college mathematics different from high school math?

How to Study Mathematics?

Understanding Mathematics

Biology study tips - How to Study Biology?

Biology study tips - How to Study Biology?

Studying for biology can seem overwhelming, but it doesn't have to be. If you follow a few simple steps, studying for biology will be less stressful and more enjoyable. I've compiled a list of several helpful biology study tips for biology students. Whether you're in middle school, high school, or college, these tips are bound to produce results!

Darley's Study Suggestions for Introductory Biology Courses

How to Study for Biology?

Biology fact sheet

Why study Chemistry?

Why study Chemistry?

Chemistry is the central science and impacts on all facets of our lives. An understanding of chemistry is necessary to all other sciences from astronomy to zoology. All of the materials used by engineers and technologists are made by chemical reactions and we all experience chemical reactions continuously, whether it be breathing or baking a cake, driving a car or listening to a battery driven minidisk player. Chemistry is concerned with all aspects of molecules, their physical and chemical properties, their composition and structure, their synthesis and use in the 21st century.

A Chemistry-based degree gives you an excellent qualification for a wide career choice within science, industry or commerce. A Chemistry graduate is numerate, analytical, and practical and has good problem solving, presentation and communication skills. Jobs are to be found in small, medium and multinational chemical companies as well as in business, banking, accountancy, marketing, advertising, teaching, and the IT sector. Of course, you may decide to continue studying Chemistry and many of our graduates opt to do research for a further period of one to three years for a higher degree.
Chemistry is fundamental. To understand why an autumn leaf turns red, or why a diamond is hard, or why soap gets us clean, requires an understanding of chemistry. To design a synthetic fiber, a life-saving drug, or a space capsule requires knowledge of chemistry. The behavior of atoms, molecules, and ions determines the sort of world we have to live in, our shapes and sizes, and even how we feel on a given day. So chemistry is worth studying, first of all, just because it is such a good antidote for ignorance.

Chemistry is a worthwhile discipline too because it prepares us for the real world. A college graduate with a degree in chemistry is in a good position to choose a useful and interesting career. Food chemistry, polymer chemistry, dyestuff chemistry, chemical oceanography, chemical information, chemical sales-the list of career possibilities is long and varied. Even in times when unemployment rates are generally high, the chemist remains the scientist most in demand.

Chemists are very much involved in tackling the problems faced by our modern society. On a given day, a chemist may be studying the mechanism of the recombination of DNA, measuring the amount of insecticide in drinking water, comparing the protein content of meats, developing a new antibiotic, or analyzing a moon rock. Participation in important and interesting projects as a competent chemical scientist begins, of course, with a study of introductory chemistry as an undergraduate.

Chemistry is a challenging major. The undergraduate curriculum is demanding both intellectually and in terms of time. There are no "easy courses" to be found in it. One studies inorganic chemistry, organic chemistry, physical chemistry and analytical chemistry, examining the most basic qualities of matter, mastering strategies of chemical synthesis, solving chemical mysteries in the laboratory, and learning to communicate facts and theories about chemistry to others. Elective courses may include biochemistry and chemical oceanography, or one may choose to delve more deeply into one of the other subdisciplines of chemistry. Research with a member of the chemistry faculty in the junior or senior year can provide valuable experience at the frontiers of the science.

Whether your goal is to become a surgeon or a research scientist, a teacher or an information specialist, you should examine chemistry as a major. It isn't for everyone; but those students who do choose chemistry usually find it as interesting as it is challenging, and they always take great pride in the degree they earn as undergraduates.

Chemistry Study Skills

How to study Physics?

How to study Physics?

"How to Study Physics" by David R. Hubin and Charles Riddell, was published by the Learning Skills Center, Univ. of Texas at Austin, in 1977. This revision is by Lawrence C. Shepley, Physics Dept., Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX 78712. (He gratefully acknowledges the advice of Leslie Dickie, John Abbott College, Quebec; Kal Kallison, Learning Skills Center, UT Austin; and John Trimble, English Department, UT Austin.)

Click on the below link and read on:

Saturday, April 4, 2009

CBSE Secondary School Curriculum and Syllabus - 2010

Please visit the following link and click on the Students section (on the left side) and open Curriculum and syllabus fo 2010 to download it.

Schools may opt for their own choice of topics for the 11th std exams from the given syllabus.

Wednesday, April 1, 2009

Welcome to the world of Plus education

Welcome to cbseplus and the world of Plus education

Dear students, parents and teachers,

It is my belief that in every difficult situation their lies an opportunity. A chance happening and the challenges ahead due to it lead to the birth of this blogspot. I dedicate it to the untiring, diligent and dedicated efforts of all CBSE Plus students, their teachers and parents. The objective currently is to make a head start now with the old question papers and answers of previous years. Concurrently, there will be attempts to create links with other sites that has the same initiatives. At the same path, there will be also links to various educational programmes which are looked up on to after Plus education.

I thank in advance the e-learning divisions of IGNOU, BITS PILANI and most of all CBSE for their guidance, motivation and support to this new initiative. Plans and coordinated efforts will be effectively channelled to create an efficient e-learning point for students to visit and get inspired to come up with sterling performances in education, career and life ahead.

I invite all teachers, students and administrators who would like to expand this objective and contribute collectively to SHARE the knowledge pool to write to me at

It is a great challenge and offering sincere pranams to all my gurus, I begin and dedicate my effort to the student and teaching community.

Please promote, participate and continue to support as usual.

God Bless,

Ramesh Menon
Wednesday, 01 April 2009